The student is exposed to the historical, cultural and philosophical foundations of child development theory and practice. The work of Rousseau, Freud, Proebel, Montessori, Pestalozzi, Devey, and others are examined. The history of early childhood programming as a distinct field outside of formal educational institutions as well as the role of programming within formal education is covered. Tensions in educational philosophy and approach between the early childhood community and the larger educational community are examined in depth. Students begin to develop the necessary skills for a scientific and dynamic understanding of child development. Such skills will assist students in the formation of informed independent opinions and a well integrated perspective. Students have the opportunity to examine the nature of early childhood through field-based experiences.