How to Become a Nurse Practitioner
A career as a nurse practitioner allows you to choose the population with which you would like to work. Your choice may then dictate a setting, such as a primary care practice or acute care. Nurse practitioners are employed in just about every specialty. They can work to the fullest extent of their nursing license, meaning they can practice independently, in a growing number of states.
How Do I Go from RN to NP?
A career as a nurse practitioner begins with becoming a registered nurse (RN). To become an RN, you will either need to hold an earned diploma or Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN) from an accredited nursing program (ACEN, CCNE or CNEA), or state Board of Nursing approved program that prepares students for the NCLEX-RN exam.
Registered nurses with an ADN or diploma can continue with an online RN to BSN program. Some schools, such as Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU), may require a BSN or Bachelor Science in Nursing as a requirement forgraduate studies. When you're ready to take the next step toward becoming a nurse practitioner, you will need to earn a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) or Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) from an accredited program. There, you'llneed to complete specific nurse practitioner courses and supervised clinical practice hours.
In addition to the advanced graduate education, “nurse practitioners are required to complete a specific number of clinical practicum hours,” said Dr. Nicholas S. Carte, AGPCNP-C, APRN, graduate nursing faculty lead at SNHU.*
How Long Does It Take to Become a Nurse Practitioner?
On average, “it can take about two years of graduate education to obtain the minimum educational requirements to become a nurse practitioner,” said Carte. The two years is based on being a full-time student (two courses each term) and starting from a BSN.
The time to complete the degree can vary based on the person and depends on how many classes you take each term. Many learners work full or part-time while in school or have families or other commitments that may not work for a traditional, on-ground nurse practitioner master's program. An online program is an excellent option for those who wish to obtain a master's degree but need more flexibility.
It’s important to note that education is only one part of becoming a nurse practitioner. After completing your educational program including the required clinical hours, you must then pass a nationally recognized NP exam in order to apply for your Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) license. “One cannot practice as an NP without successfully passing a nationally recognized certification exam,” Carte said.
The exam gauges your knowledge of patient assessment, diagnosis, clinical management, evaluation, and APRN professional role dimensions. For family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, there are two choices of national certification exams: ANCC Family Nurse Practitioner board certification exam or American Academy of Nurse Practitioner’s Family Nurse Practitioner certification exam.
What is the Fastest Way to Become a Nurse Practitioner?
There are no shortcuts to becoming a nurse practitioner. There are, however, ways to maximize your time as you complete the work necessary to earn the credential.
Some ways include:
- Talking with an admissions counselor at your desired school. Admission counselors can help identify potential eligibility for transfer credits. They can help you map out a timeline and course of study. They can also share information about the program, its requirements and any unique features, as well as how the school is positioned to help you succeed in meeting your career goals.
- Working directly in the field that interests you. If you are an emergency room nurse that wants to explore a career as a family nurse practitioner, for example, consider gaining experience at a family practice clinic in your area. Relevant experience will help you explore nursing specialties as well as boost your skill set in nursing overall.
- Explore financial aid options. No one wants to leave school heavily in debt, so by mapping out the necessary coursework and timeline toward degree completion, you will also know the financial aspect of the degree. The financial aid department of your school will be happy to help you explore options to make earning your master’s degree cost-effective for you as well.
- Talking to a career advisor at your desired school. Even before enrollment, checking in with the career department of the school that interests you is a great way to gain information about your program. Be sure to ask questions about job placement rates after graduation and support the school offers to alumni.
Do Credentials Differ by State?
All nurse practitioners must pass an exam that leads to a national certification. While credentials are awarded by a national organization, it’s important to note that licensing varies by state. “At SNHU, we teach to the highest-level national standards,” said Dr. Jequie Dixon, APRN, AGACNP-BC, clinical coordinator of MSN programs at SNHU.** “That way, nurses who graduate from our nurse practitioner program have the knowledge and skills needed to begin a new career" and become nurse practitioners who are well-trained and ready to work.
Some states allow nurse practitioners to practice independently. Others require them to work under the oversight of a physician. Every state can set its standards for licensure in terms of clinical hours and type of training needed beyond the master’s degree as well as for continuing education and national certification.
What Skills Do You Need to Be a Nurse Practitioner?
In addition to the specific educational and clinical requirements for nurse practitioner certifications, soft skills such as providing compassionate care and the ability to multi-task and communicate effectively are critical. To be a nurse practitioner in any specific specialty, "you must be focused, organized and flexible," Dixon said.
In a role as busy and complex as a nurse practitioner, you need to combine interpersonal and technical skills while still showing deep compassion for your patients.
“We’re all very busy, so being able to reach your patients and encourage their participation in their own care is huge,” Dixon said. “If patients don’t understand the need for a certain medication or how to take the medication properly, they simply won’t take it. Then they’ll come back in with the same concerns. This is where compassion and holistic care really make a difference."
What is the Career Potential for a Nurse Practitioner?
The career potential for a nurse practitioner is quite strong. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the nurse practitioner profession is expected to grow as much as 52% over the next 10 years. The median salary is $111,680 per year.
As part of your educational journey, you must choose a population that you wish to focus on, such as pediatrics, adult-gerontology, women, neonatal, psychiatric/mental health or family practice (across the lifespan from birth to death). If you decide to become an FNP, for example, you may work to assess patients, diagnose and treat illness, and providepatient education about medication and treatment plans to patients of all ages.
Where Can Nurse Practitioners Work?
Since nurse practitioners are needed across all populations, the profession offers several work environments to consider when choosing your path. “A nurse practitioner can pursue a career in a variety of settings, including private practice, group practice or urgent care, to name just a few,” Carte said. Other opportunities for a nurse practitioner can include roles in clinics, academia and leadership.
Because nurse practitioners treat every population, they are also needed in all kinds of geographic locations – cities, suburban areas and rural communities.
Rural communities have a great demand for nurse practitioners. "This is because there is a shortage of primary care physicians which provides opportunities for the nurse practitioner," Dixon said. Nurse practitioners can evaluate patients, manage treatment plans and write prescriptions as well as get to know their patients on an individual level. These responsibilities help nurse practitioners care for patients more holistically and ensure that patients in communities everywhere have access to quality healthcare.
The beauty of the nursing profession is that the demand for nursing care is everywhere. Any community with a goal of improving health of their citizens – or keep them healthy – needs nurse practitioners.
Can Nurse Practitioners Practice Independently?
Currently, more than 25 states allow nurse practitioners to practice independently. This means they can open their own clinics and treat their own patients without needing a physician to oversee the practice. The ability to practice independently creates a great opportunity for nurse practitioners and for the communities they serve.
“You’ll see independent nurse practitioners in more rural states because getting providers there is difficult,” Dixon said. "Physicians tend to work in bigger cities where they can focus on a specialty, so the need for general practitioners in more rural communities is great.”
This is a wonderful trend, in Dixon’s opinion. “The fact that nurse practitioners have independent clinical opportunities in more states and are able to serve even more people is amazing,” she said.
Dixon also feels nurse practitioners emphasize helping the patient actively participate in their care.
“If I prescribe amoxicillin, but the patient doesn’t take it because they don’t understand how or why they’re taking it, the problem won't be fixed," Dixon said. But when the patient truly understands the purpose of their treatment plan, they are more apt to participate. The nurse practitioner’s emphasis on patient education and relationship-building is the bridge.
What’s the Bottom Line?
Working as a nurse practitioner is a rewarding career. “Therapeutic communication, understanding family needs and caregiver needs are all part of what makes a good nurse practitioner,” said Dixon.
Throughout her career, Dixon has worked as a nurse practitioner in critical care, aesthetics, oncology, hospital medicine, and academia. She decided to add to her nursing training by earning a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree. That degree allows her to train other nurses who want to build on their knowledge and help those who want to learn how to become nurse practitioners. She enjoys the flexibility that her profession allows with opportunities “to move around to different clinical areas and new specialties without ever losing momentum.”
Above all, Dixon finds the ability to reach patients in meaningful ways one of the most important aspects of the profession. “Nursing is all about safe patient care, patient education and understanding where the patient is coming from so you can best provide care,” she said.
*Carte's credentials stand for: Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner-Certified (AGPCNP-C) and Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN).
**Dixon's credentials stand for: Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner-Board Certified (AGACNP-BC).
Marie Morganelli, PhD, is a freelance content writer and editor.
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