Learn Crime Analysis Online
- $330/credit (120 total credits)
- Transfer up to 90 credits
- Get up to 12 credits for law enforcement training
- Learn from instructors with frontline experience
- Dive deep into analyzing criminal behavior
- No application fee or SAT/ACT scores required
Online Criminology Degree Concentration Overview
What leads to deviant behavior? How does someone go from antisocial to sociopath? Why does one person rise above adverse conditions while another adopts a life of crime? What’s behind the criminal mind?
Explore the answers to these questions and more in SNHU's online Bachelor of Science (BS) in Criminal Justice with a concentration in Criminology and Crime Analysis.
Building on our core criminal justice curriculum, this concentration will give you the opportunity to apply criminological theory to develop crime reduction and prevention strategies. You'll examine the important roles that criminologists and crime analysts play in the development of data-based, proactive policing methods and crime prevention policies.
You'll then bridge the study of deviant behavior with the analysis of data designed to solve real-world problems associated with prevention, control and treatment of crime and delinquency. Plus, you'll learn this critical knowledge of the criminal justice system from faculty who've served on the front lines of the field.
As you complete your criminology and crime analysis courses, you’ll develop the skills and knowledge to succeed in law enforcement, social services and related fields. Armed with specialized knowledge in data-driven problem solving, you can position yourself for success in today's criminal justice job market.
What You'll Learn
- Theories of human behavior
- Crime reduction and prevention strategies
- Technology and societal trends in criminal justice
- Empathy and compassion for diverse populations
- Laws, regulations and ethical standards
- Communication skills in criminal justice
- Research methodologies
How You'll Learn
At SNHU, you'll get support from day 1 to graduation and beyond. And with no set class times, 24/7 access to the online classroom, and helpful learning resources along the way, you'll have everything you need to reach your goals.
Learn what makes Southern New Hampshire University's criminal justice program one of the nation’s largest and most popular. Dr. Jeff Czarnec, SNHU’s associate dean of criminal justice and social science programs, explains why our course content, faculty and learning experience stand out.
By earning your online degree in criminology and crime analysis, you'll be well-positioned for the fastest-growing career paths in this field, including:
Police and Detectives
Gather facts and collect evidence for criminal cases, observe the activities of suspects and make arrests.
Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists
Supervise people placed on probation or develop rehabilitation plans for people on probation or parole.
Social and Community Service Managers
Focus on the public well-being of children, homeless people, older adults or veterans, or help people with substance use or mental health disorders.
In addition to these occupations, your online criminology and crime analysis degree can prepare you to pursue an advanced degree in law or sociology. Sociologists who specialize in crime (also known as criminologists) analyze penal systems and populations to study the causes and effects of crime.
Law enforcement positions may involve additional training and eligibility requirements. You might choose to gain more knowledge through an online master's in criminal justice, which offers a general track, as well as 2 career-focused concentrations – public safety administration and advanced counterterrorism & homeland security.
Earn credits for what you already know: Did you know certain work and life experience – like industry-recognized certifications, law enforcement training and math knowledge – could save you time and money at SNHU? Learn how you could get credit for work or life experience.
Job Growth and Salary
After completing your criminology degree, job opportunities and salary will depend on your career plan and your ultimate educational goals, but overall job growth is on the rise.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicts 72,600 new jobs in protective service occupations and a 10% growth in social and community service occupations through 2031.1 The projected job growth is 3% for police and detectives and 12% for social and community service managers.1
The BLS reported a 2021 median annual salary of $60,250 for probation officers, $74,000 for social and community service managers, $92,910 for sociologists and $66,020 for police and detectives.1
Understanding the numbers
When reviewing job growth and salary information, it’s important to remember that actual numbers can vary due to many different factors—like years of experience in the role, industry of employment, geographic location, worker skill and economic conditions. Cited projections do not guarantee actual salary or job growth.
Start Your Journey Toward an Online Criminology Degree
Why SNHU For Your Online Criminology Degree
With no set class meeting times, you can learn on your schedule and access online course materials 24/7.
As part of our mission to make higher education more accessible, we’re committed to keeping our tuition rates low. In fact, we offer some of the lowest online tuition rates in the nation.
Prior coursework could also help you save time and money. SNHU’s transfer policy allows you to transfer up to 90 credits toward your bachelor's degree and 45 credits for an associate degree from your previous institutions—that means you could save up to 75% off the cost of tuition. You could also save time and money by getting college credit for previous work experience, or by taking advantage of military discounts and employer tuition assistance if available to you.
Founded in 1932, Southern New Hampshire University is a private, nonprofit institution with over 160,000 graduates across the country. SNHU is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE), a regional accreditor, which advocates for institutional improvement and public assurance of quality.
Recently, SNHU has been nationally recognized for leading the way toward more innovative, affordable and achievable education:
- U.S. News & World Report named SNHU the 2021 Most Innovative University in the North and one of the nation's "Best Regional Universities"
- Awarded the 21st Century Distance Learning Award for Excellence in Online Technology by The United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA)
- A $1 million grant from Google.org to explore soft skills assessments for high-need youth
At Southern New Hampshire University, you'll have access to a powerful network of more than 300,000 students, alumni and staff that can help support you long after graduation. Our instructors offer relevant, real-world expertise to help you understand and navigate the field. Plus, with our growing, nationwide alumni network, you'll have the potential to tap into a number of internship and career opportunities.
93.6% of online students would recommend SNHU (according to a 2022 survey with 17,000+ respondents). Discover why SNHU may be right for you.
Expanding access to quality higher education means removing the barriers that may stand between you and your degree. That’s why you can apply at any time and get a decision within days of submitting all required materials:
- Completed free undergraduate application
- Prior transcripts, which we can retrieve at no cost to you
- Test scores are not required as part of your application
Acceptance decisions are made on a rolling basis throughout the year for our 6 (8-week) undergraduate terms.
How to Apply
If you’re ready to apply, follow these simple steps to get the process going:
- Complete a free undergraduate application
- Submit any additional documents required
- Work with an admission counselor to explore financial options and walk through the application process
If you have questions or need help filling out your application, call 1.888.387.0861 or email email@example.com.
Cultural Competency is Our Responsibility
Dr. Jeff Czarnec, associate dean of criminal justice and social science programs
“Criminal justice programs have the direct responsibility to help ensure that future law enforcement professionals have an enhanced understanding of the human condition along with strong critical thinking skills in order to become culturally competent public servants.”
Courses & Curriculum
A criminology degree provides an intense exploration of the criminal mind. Topics range from theories of crime and punishment to the psychological and social basis of criminal behavior. The degree also offers you a window into rehabilitation and recidivism, studies of specific types of crime, and social attitudes and policy.
Throughout the criminology courses in the online criminal justice degree program, you'll acquire the skills and knowledge you need to pursue your career goals. Our unique criminology degree online program gives you a foundation in essential criminal justice principles with courses such as:
- Cultural Awareness in Criminal Justice
- Communication Skills for Criminal Justice
- Technology in Criminal Justice
In addition to your core criminal justice courses, the criminology and crime analysis concentration includes 4 specialized course.
- Criminology and Public Policy. Discover how the role and responsibilities of criminologists in the criminal justice field influence the development of various forms of public policies. Explore social control, deviance theories and the relationship between the constitution and civil liberties and public policies.
- Prevention of Crime. Apply your knowledge of criminological theory to analyze how it contributes to effective prevention of crime within communities. Study the relationship between environmental design, evidenced based interventions and criminological research in preventing crime.
- Data-Based Policing Strategies. Examine the historical evolution of data in policing strategies and study the challenges and benefits of data analysis in the deployment of proactive policing strategies. Apply knowledge of data to determine how it is used to prevent crime.
- Crime Analysis and Solutions. Learn the various methodologies used in research to analyze the successes and failures of research-based policing strategies. Use common tools and technology to determine patterns and trends related to criminal activity.
Critical thinking and communication are crucial for success in the field. This program includes courses that are useful if you plan to pursue a criminal justice communication certificate – a bonus if you want to move up the ranks.
Learn from Experienced Faculty
Courses are taught by highly regarded, accomplished faculty with years of real-world, hands-on experience and advanced academic qualifications.
Bara Alkafil ’16 appreciated that many of her criminal justice classes were taught by current and retired police officers. “Whenever they discussed what happens in the real world, it made me want to learn more about law enforcement,” she said.
Alkafil, a refugee from Iraq, chose criminal justice to help people the way she and her family were helped many years ago.
“It is because of people's ability to help one another and serve justice (that) I am no longer a refugee and (now) a citizen of the greatest country in the world,” she said.
Our criminal justice faculty have experience working for major law enforcement agencies, including:
- Atlanta Police Department
- Chicago Police Department
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
- Homeland Security
- Houston Police Department
- Miami Police Department
- New York City Police Department
Kelcey Kennedy '19 '21G could feel just how much the instructors wanted students to succeed.
They understand that life gets busy and that we all have different things going on, so they make the workload manageable," she said. "They are very fair with the workload and grading processes and if for any reason you need help, they are there every step of the way. In the end, they want you to learn and become successful and will do anything they can to be a positive piece in your educational journey."
Curriculum Requirements & Resources
All undergraduate students are required to take general education courses, which are part of SNHU's newly redesigned program, The Commons. The goal of The Commons' curriculum is to empower you with some of the most in-demand skills, so you can succeed not only in your academic career, but in your personal and professional life too.
We provide cloud-based virtual environments in some courses to give you access to the technology you need for your degree – and your career. Learn more about our virtual environments.
Earn Math Credits
Save time and tuition with our Pathways to Math Success assessments. Depending on your scores, you could earn up to 12 math credits – the equivalent of 4 courses – toward your degree for less than $50 per assessment. For additional information, or to register for a Pathways to Math Success assessment, contact your admission counselor or academic advisor today.
|View Full Curriculum in the Catalog|
|BS in Criminal Justice - Criminology & Crime Analysis|
|Courses May Include|
|BS in Criminal Justice Criminology Online|
|CJ 112||Introduction to Criminal Justice||In this introduction to the criminal justice program students will begin to understand the major components within various professions at the state, local and federal levels and how they are interconnected. Communication skills, career prospects, and an overview of the core components of the United States government will be reviewed to provide students with a holistic view of sworn and civilian roles within the criminal justice system.|
|CJ 205||Policing in the United States||Students will explore the historical evolution of policing to better understand its current structure and function within criminal justice. The value of positive community relationships and partnerships will be covered, as well as how sworn and civilian positions work together to maintain public safety. Various types of communication such as internal reports and documentation will be practiced.|
|CJ 207||The United States Judicial System||Students will examine the structure and function of the United States court system through the lens of both sworn and civilian professionals. Students will focus on the different levels of the federal court system, roles and responsibilities of criminal justice professionals and allied organizations, and common processes and procedures in the United States judicial system.|
|CJ 210||The United States Correctional System||Students will examine the function of corrections in the United States criminal justice system to develop an understanding of the structure, function, and relationships with allied professions. Systemic issues impacting incarceration, ideologies of punishment that influence sentencing, and the role of public policy in corrections will be analyzed.|
|CJ 305||Technology in Criminal Justice||Students will analyze how technology is leveraged by criminal justice professionals and used as a tool to commit crime. Legal aspects of using technology in the field as well as positive and negative impacts technology has had on the criminal justice field will be discussed.|
|CJ 306||Criminology and Public Policy||Students will examine how the role and responsibilities of criminologists in the criminal justice field influence the development of various forms of public policies. Social control, deviance theories, and the relationship between the Constitution and civil liberties and public policies will be covered.|
|CJ 340||Criminology||Students will explore social, psychological, and criminological theories to better understand what influences criminal behavior. Based on their explorations of criminology, students will practice the application of theory to better understand criminal motivation in addition to the relationship between criminology and law.|
|CJ 346||Prevention of Crime||In this course, students will apply their knowledge of criminological theory to analyze how it contributes to effective prevention of crime within communities. In addition, students will study the relationship between environmental design, evidence-based interventions, and criminological research in preventing crime.|
|CJ 347||Data-Based Policing Strategies||Through the examination of the historical evolution of data in policing strategies, students will study the challenges and benefits of data analysis in the deployment of proactive policing strategies. Students will apply their knowledge of data to determine how it is used to prevent crime.|
|CJ 407||Crime Analysis and Solutions||In this course, students will examine the various methodologies used in research to analyze the successes and failures of research based policing strategies. Common tools and technology will be used to determine patterns and trends related to criminal activity.|
|CJ 485||Problem Solving for Criminal Justice Professionals||Knowledge of criminal justice theory and practice will be applied to develop creative, evidence-informed solutions to identified professional problems. Students will evaluate potential solutions for feasibility before presenting recommendations to various audiences.|
|Total Credits: 120|
Minimum Hardware Requirements
PC (Windows OS)
Apple (Mac OS)
Currently supported operating system from Microsoft.
Currently supported operating system from Apple.
8GB or higher
8GB or higher
100GB or higher
100GB or higher
Required for campus students. Strongly recommended for online students.
Required for campus students. Strongly recommended for online students.
SNHU Purchase Programs
5 Mbps Download, 1 Mbps Upload and less than 100 ms Latency
5 Mbps Download, 1 Mbps Upload and less than 100 ms Latency
- Laptop or desktop? Whichever you choose depends on your personal preference and work style, though laptops tend to offer more flexibility.
- Note: Chromebooks (Chrome OS) and iPads (iOS) do not meet the minimum requirements for coursework at SNHU. These offer limited functionality and do not work with some course technologies. They are not acceptable as the only device you use for coursework. While these devices are convenient and may be used for some course functions, they cannot be your primary device. SNHU does, however, have an affordable laptop option that it recommends: Dell Latitude 3301 with Windows 10.
- Office 365 Pro Plus is available free of charge to all SNHU students and faculty. The Office suite will remain free while you are a student at SNHU. Upon graduation you may convert to a paid subscription if you wish. Terms subject to change at Microsoft's discretion. Review system requirements for Microsoft 365 plans for business, education and government.
- Antivirus software: Check with your ISP as they may offer antivirus software free of charge to subscribers.
Southern New Hampshire University is a private, nonprofit institution accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE) as well as several other accrediting bodies.
Tuition & Fees
As a private, nonprofit university, we’re committed to making college more accessible by making it more affordable. That’s why we offer some of the lowest online tuition rates in the nation.
We also offer financial aid packages to those who qualify, plus a 30% tuition discount for U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty.
|Online Undergraduate Programs||Per Course||Per Credit Hour||Annual Cost for 30 credits|
|Degree/Certificates (U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty)*||$693||$231||$6,930|
Tuition Rates are subject to change and are reviewed annually. *Note: students receiving this rate are not eligible for additional discounts.
Additional Costs No Application Fee, Course Materials ($ varies by course)
Frequently Asked Questions
Can you study criminology online?
You can, and there are plenty of reasons you should. Flexibility might be the biggest if you’re working in the criminal justice field full time – especially if you’re doing shift work.
Even if you’re not working full time, online education offers many benefits. That’s one of the reasons so many people opt to become online students. Our online criminology and crime analysis courses follow our undergraduate schedule of six 8-week terms per year. You'll take one or two courses per term. At SNHU, the majority of your classmates will be working students.
The online criminology and crime analysis degree, like all of our online degrees, gives you the flexibility to create your own schedule. That’s because there’s no set time you need to be in front of your computer to participate in class. Each week, you log in when you can and complete your assignments on your schedule. Then, you simply turn them in by your weekly deadlines – typically Thursday and Sunday nights.
Shelly Villa ’19, a military spouse and mother of four girls, chose SNHU’s online criminology degree to finish what she’d started after high school. She knew that by attending school online, she could still be there for her daughters.
“I knew I didn’t have to worry about babysitters or getting to campus or finding parking or anything that comes with going to a traditional school,” she said. Villa was able to fit coursework in around her schedule, not the other way around.
She also liked the program’s diverse array of classes.
“I had never really thought about the juvenile court system before,” Villa said. “Then I took the class for the juvenile system, and I said, ‘Hey, this is something I’m actually really interested in.’”
Intrigued by his wife’s passion for the program, Sal Villa enrolled in the AS in Criminal Justice program with plans to complete his bachelor’s degree in criminology next. After nearly 15 years of active military duty, he wanted a career in law enforcement and knew a degree would give him the edge he needed.
“Having my bachelor’s degree by the time I retire from active duty will definitely put me ahead of the game,” Villa said.
With hopes of becoming a police officer, Villa felt drawn to the criminology and sociology aspects of the criminal justice system. His motivation: to study the mind and help minimize the number of criminals in society.
What’s motivating you? Whether you want to get into law enforcement, corrections, social services or go on to teach criminal justice, SNHU’s criminology degree is worth a closer look.
What can you do with a degree in criminology?
Whether your goal is to break into the criminal justice field or you’re looking to advance in your current role, you have lots of options.
Earning your criminology and crime analysis degree online at SNHU can help you grow specialized skills that can make you stand out to employers. By combining a foundation in criminal justice with the data-savvy skills of crime analysis, you'll be positioned for success in a diverse array of career paths, including:
- Police and detectives: The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) cites five main areas of responsibility for detectives and criminal investigators. They interview people to gather information, search records to uncover clues, conduct surveillance, collect evidence for clients, and check for civil judgments and criminal history. The BLS projects 3% growth for this area of law enforcement through 2031.1
- Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists: Probation officers oversee people on probation. Correctional treatment specialists create rehabilitation plans for those on probation or parole. The BLS estimates about 8,000 openings each year, on average, for these roles through 2031.1
- Social and community service managers: Whether serving children, the homeless, older adults, veterans, or people with substance abuse or mental health needs, these roles focus on public well-being. The BLS sees 12% growth in this category through 2031 and reported a median annual salary of $74,000 in 2021.1
Kelcey Kennedy '19 '21G went on to earn a master's in psychology after finishing her criminology program to position herself for her dream career.
"I want to be able to work with inmates to rehabilitate them back into society," she said. "Upon completing my degrees, I now have that opportunity."
What school has the best criminology program?
Many schools offer criminology programs, but only you can decide which one is best for you. You’ll need to consider whether the program fits your budget, your schedule and your career plans, among other things.
SNHU’s criminology and crime analysis degree is one of the most affordable in the nation. It also offers the flexibility of an online degree. Combined enrollment in our criminal justice college degrees – including associate, bachelor's and master's programs – currently tops 7,000 students. Our faculty members bring real-world experience from all aspects of law enforcement to the classroom.
The program is also notable for its curriculum, which marries the latest criminology theory with practical crime analysis skills. This prepares graduates with an education that can set them apart in a competitive market.
Southern New Hampshire University also gives you access to online student groups like the Law and Disorder Club. The club hosts networking and educational events like Serial Killer Month, featuring trivia about serial killers, and a Cold Case Mystery Party.
Kristine Ducote, one of the founders of the club, said the networking between members and criminal justice professionals is one of the main advantages of joining the club.
“We meet different professionals in the field,” Ducote said. “You start networking (and) it can help you land a job you want (or) get your career going in the direction you want to go.”
Ducote started the club to help students get more from their programs and, ultimately, land a job in criminal justice.
“I want these students to go out and succeed, and I want them to go out and have what they need before they graduate,” she said. “It’s very important to me because we address issues that really need addressing.”
How much money can you make with a criminology degree?
That depends partly on your career plans and partly on your ultimate educational goals.
Want to use your bachelor’s in criminology to pursue a traditional path in law enforcement as a detective? According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), police and detectives made median annual wages of $66,020 in 2021.1
If you want your criminology degree to lead to work in the prison system as a probation officer or correctional treatment specialist, know that the BLS reported median annual wages of $60,250 in 2021.1
Is working for the public well-being what you aspire to? Social and community service managers made a median annual wage of $74,000 in 2021.1
Is victim advocacy where your passion lies? The BLS reported a median annual wage of $50,390 for social workers who help victims of crimes in 2021.1
Of course, an advanced law enforcement degree can increase your earning potential. SNHU offers the MS in Criminal Justice with 2 concentrations – counterterrorism & homeland security and public administration.
If you're not ready to take on a full graduate program, you can also strengthen your resume – and collect credits you can later apply to your master's degree – with a graduate certificate in counterterrorism or public administration.
Is a criminology degree worth it?
The criminology degree is versatile and meaningful. You can take it in a number of directions, from traditional law enforcement roles to working in the prison system or social services.
As you complete your criminology and crime analysis courses, you’ll develop the skills and knowledge to succeed in law enforcement, social services and related fields. And you’ll gain something just as vital – a better understanding of people.
Ian Moffett, retired chief of the Miami-Dade school system, spoke about the importance of empathy in criminal justice after the death of George Floyd in May 2020. Lending his expertise on a panel hosted at SNHU, Moffett said, “Studies show that people with higher education, people who have degrees, have better problem-solving skills. They’re more empathetic.”
As a leader in the field of criminal justice, SNHU is re-imagining the skills and experiences our criminology degree students will need as they enter the workforce. Part of that effort is our Contemporary Justice Series, which brings in national voices to help students succeed as public servants.
“We have a bigger responsibility than to just deliver content,” said Dr. Jeff Czarnec, associate dean of criminal justice and social science programs. “Our biggest responsibility is to add value to the program by looking to develop culturally competent public safety people.”
Regardless of your career goals, the empathy and communication skills at the core of this program will help you achieve them.
Is criminology a good career?
Criminology is a great career choice, especially if you’re passionate about protecting the nation’s citizens from crime or serving the public good.
After completing his associate degree in criminal justice, Sal Villa plans to go on to earn his bachelor’s degree in criminology. Currently serving in the military, Villa hopes to become a police officer someday. He’s interested in criminology not only because he wants to study the criminal mind. His higher purpose is to help reduce criminal behavior in society.
Laurie Nuzzo, SNHU criminal justice faculty and FBI Investigative Specialist, said a degree in criminology can help lead to a more fulfilling career. She has many students who believe they’ve learned how to communicate better with people through their studies.
What degree do I need to be a crime analyst?
SNHU's online Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice with a concentration in Criminology and Crime Analysis is uniquely designed to help prepare you for success as a crime analyst.
Developed by industry experts who understand the demands of today's workforce, this specialized degree offers a perfect path for a crime analyst – whether you're just starting your career or ready to make a change.
How do you become a crime analyst?
Becoming a crime analyst requires the right balance of criminal justice, research and data analytics skills. To this end, a bachelor's degree – while not always required – may be a powerful way to break into the field.
SNHU's online criminology and crime analysis degree is uniquely designed to help grow this very specific skillset. On one hand, you'll get the foundation you need to succeed in a protective service occupation. On the other, you'll gain competence with data analytics – which is itself a high-demand skill in just about every imaginable industry.
Real-world experience and on-the-job training are also helpful. Those with a background in law enforcement, for example, can gain practical knowledge that may position them for successful crime analysis careers.
Plus, those with law enforcement training can transfer their experience for up to 12 college credits at SNHU – saving you time and tuition.
What is the purpose of crime analysis?
Put simply, crime analysis is designed to predict and prevent criminal behavior. It achieves this goal through the analysis of a wide variety of data – which then informs strategic solutions to help reduce crime and protect communities.
"[Crime analysts] need to learn quantitative and qualitative techniques, to analyze data and develop crime prevention and intervention models," said Mahmut Cengiz, an SNHU adjunct professor and senior data analyst.
"Crime has a pattern. Crime analysis, instead of relying on law enforcement approximations, uses statistical prediction to identify the most probable areas for urgent police intervention," he said.
Sources & Citations (1)
1Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, on the internet at:
- https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/home.htm (viewed Oct. 20, 2022)
- https://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/home.htm (viewed Oct. 20, 2022)
- https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/police-and-detectives.htm (viewed Oct. 20, 2022)
- https://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/probation-officers-and-correctional-treatment-specialists.htm (viewed Oct. 20, 2022)
- https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/social-and-community-service-managers.htm (viewed Oct. 20, 2022)
- https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/sociologists.htm (viewed Oct. 20, 2022)
- https://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/social-workers.htm (viewed Oct. 20, 2022)
Cited projections may not reflect local or short-term economic or job conditions and do not guarantee actual job growth.